Roadmap for confidence building measures (CBM) in cyberspace

How can nations intentionally build trust and confidence among friends and adversaries in cyberspace to reduce tensions online?

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Goal of this Workshop

Learn from expert panelists on how effective confidence building measures for cyberspace are designed.

Share essential knowledge, from multistakeholder participants on the panel and in attendance.

Challenge conventional wisdom about how to build trust and confidence between nations in cyberspace.

This session will provide important learnings and highlight significant opportunities for those in attendance from all stakeholder groups seeking to find ways to improve the cybersecurity ecosystem through meaningful actions to promote trust and increase capacity among states in cyberspace. For representatives from nations still establishing a posture on these issues, this session will highlight the various forums and opportunities for multilateral, regional and bilateral engagements pursued by other nations to advance their interests and build relationships in this space.

For countries that have already been active in cyber diplomacy in recent years, this dialogue will provide an opportunity for them to share their insights and learn from others about what could be innovative new approaches to building trust and establishing cooperative relationships with governments and other stakeholders to reduce tensions and increase security online.

For representatives from other stakeholder groups, including industry and civil society, the panel discussion will serve to illuminate the current status of an emerging and critically important policy space.


Policy Questions

  • What would characterize effective confidence building measures to develop trust and reduce tensions in cyberspace?
  • How should confidence building measures in cyberspace mirror those used in conventional domains of conflict and in what ways should they differ?
  • What role can other stakeholder groups play in helping states both develop and implement confidence building measures for cyberspace?


This session will take an expansive look at confidence building measures (CBMs) in cyberspace. An accelerating arms race between nations in the “fifth domain of conflict” – cyberspace – is likely to continue unabated without the imposition of meaningful processes and dialogues meant to reduce tensions and promote trust among competing and even allied countries. Such activities can mirror traditional approaches to confidence building in other conflict domains, including diplomatic engagements, information sharing, and technology exchanges, but might also involve innovative new approaches unique to cyberspace – including focusing on cooperative cybersecurity capacity building.

The development of confidence building measures for cyberspace will need to leverage a diversity of perspectives, including those who have a knowledge of the technology and challenges posed by cybersecurity, as well as those who understand the nuances of statecraft that make such CBMs effective in other domains of conflict and interstate competition. To this end the panel will gather speakers to represent government perspectives and those of intergovernmental organizations, as well as speakers to share insights from civil society, academia and the technology industry.

The session format will allow speakers to present their respective points of view as it relates to the potential of CBMs in cyberspace, as well as the opportunity to challenge and respond to one another on which approaches might be most effective. Importantly, the session will help educate those attending the session on this emerging area of cyber diplomacy and leave ample time for questions directly from those in attendance to the panelists.


Panel Discussion - Auditorium - 90 Min


  • 5 mins – Moderator sets the stage for the discussion, introducing panelists and highlighting the current state of affairs as it relates to the pursuit of confidence building measures between states in cyberspace.
  • 25 mins – Remarks from panelists sharing their perspectives on the major opportunities and challenges in establishing effective confidence building measures in cyberspace, and the ability of various stakeholder groups to support or hinder these efforts.
  • 30 mins – Moderator asks pointed questions to respective speakers about avenues for advancement in this space and highlighting where there seem to be obstacles to further progress.
  • 30 mins – Those participating in the session, in the room and remotely, will be welcomed to ask direct questions of the speakers and share differing perspectives related to the development of confidence building measures in cyberspace. Once again, speakers will be encouraged to both address the questions that are asked as well as to respond to the answers provided by their colleagues.

Date & Location

Wednesday Nov 27, 2019 11:30 - 13:00

Estrel Congress Center, Raum V

Sonnenallee 225, 12057 Berlin

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Online Participation

You can also participate remotely, watch the programme and contribute to the discussions. These are the following steps:

  1. Create a user account on
  2. Follow the confirmation link in the email to activate your account
  3. Install on your device. An installation guide do you find here: Remote Participation Platform Guide
  4. Use the account to access the online participation section. You will find an overview of the various rooms and transmissions during the event, among other things.

Registration for online participation is possible until the end of the event. Please join the room 10 minutes before the events starts.


Caroline Greer.jpg

Caroline Greer, Industry
Head of European Public Policy, Cloudflare

Caroline Greer is Head of European Public Policy for Cloudflare, based in Brussels. Caroline manages a wide portfolio of policy and regulatory issues relevant to Cloudflare's mission of building a better and more secure Internet. Prior to joining Cloudflare, Caroline was Head of Public Policy for ETNO, and she has also worked extensively in the domain name industry. She commenced her career working for the Irish Government and the Irish telecoms regulator. Caroline holds a degree in Law and Spanish, and an MBA.


Sithuraj s/o Ponraj, Government
Director, International Cyber Policy Office,  Cyber Security Agency of Singapore 

Sithuraj Ponraj currently serves as the Director of the International Cyber Policy Office at the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA). In this role, he drives CSA’s bilateral, regional and international engagements through initiatives such the ASEAN Cyber Capacity Programme (ACCP), the Singapore International Cyber Week, as well as co-chairing the ASEAN Regional Forum Open Ended Study Group on Confidence Building Measures. His key areas of focus include norms of responsible state behaviour in cyberspace, cybersecurity confidence building measures and capacity building efforts. Prior to joining  CSA, Sithuraj held positions in the Singapore Parliament, as well as the National Security Coordination Secretariat.


Nikolas Ott, International Organizations

Transnational Threats Department, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

Nikolas Ott works at the cyber/ICT security team within the Transnational Threats Department of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). He is responsible for implementing capacity-building and awareness raising efforts of the OSCE cyber/ICT Confidence Building Measures (CBM). He is an alumnus of the Mercator Fellowship of International Affairs and the German Academic Scholarship Foundation. He holds a M.A. in Law and Diplomacy from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University) and B.A. in Political Science from Freie Universität Berlin.

Camille Gufflet.jpg

Caroline Gufflet, International Organizations

European External Action Service (EEAS)

Ms. Camille Gufflet is a Policy officer on cyber security at the European External Action Service. Within the EEAS, in cooperation with Member States, the European Commission and wider EU cyber community, she focuses on ensuring a coordinated EU approach on cyber issues in the context of international security. It includes promoting the agreed cyber norms of responsible state behaviour, the application of existing international law and supporting the implementation of regional confidence building measures to reduce tensions and misperceptions from the uses of ICTs. Before joining the EEAS, Ms. Gufflet was First Secretary at the Permanent Representation of France to the Conference on disarmament, in Geneva. Prior, she served in the Mission of Defence at the Permanent Representation of France to the United Nations in New York. Ms. Gufflet has also worked in the Ministry of the Armed forces focusing on UN Peacekeeping operations.  



Kaja Ciglic, Industry
Onsite Moderator
Senior Director, Digital Diplomacy, Microsoft

As part of the Digital Diplomacy team at Microsoft, Kaja leads Microsoft work on issues related to international peace and stability to advance trust in the computing ecosystem. Previously, she led Microsoft’s international cybersecurity policy work in an effort to develop policies that support development, growth, and innovation, and advance security, privacy, and trust in the information age. Before joining Microsoft, Kaja led the APCO Worldwide’s technology practice in Seattle; directing public affairs and communication work for consultancy’s clients in this space. She holds a Bachelor of Science in international relations and history, and a Master of Science in European politics, both from the London School of Economics.


John R. Hering, Industry
Online Moderator

John R. Hering is a Digital Diplomacy and Cybersecurity Business Program Manager at Microsoft. He analyzes the global cybersecurity landscape, drives engagement with regional government teams and contributes to Microsoft’s efforts to promote peace and security in cyberspace through various multi-stakeholder initiatives. Prior to joining Microsoft, John served as a political appointee at the U.S. Department of Defense, OSD-P. He has also previously led humanitarian aid research in northeastern Nigeria and worked as a math and science teacher through Teach For America. John holds a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Boston College and a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.


John Hering, Microsoft


John Hering, Microsoft
Jamal Edwards, Microsoft

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